on education 

on housing 

on foreign policy

The Role of Public
Diplomacy in
the Evolution of
United States–China Relations,
1972 through 2002

I.  The Getting-to-
Know-You Years, 
1972 through 1979

II.  1980 through 2000:
The Years of Explosive
Growth in Travel, 
Investment, Commerce, 
and Cross-Cultural Study
and Language Trainin

III.  Todays United States
China Interdependence:
Lessons Learned and
Their Application to the
Current United States

Islam Divide


One China or Two?



U.S. State Department

U.S. State Department Background Note: China


Maps of China

U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, 2002, China notes including map

Perspectives on Foreign Policy


 II.  The years of explosive growth, page 3 of 3




1.  "The Bund: This park-like promenade, stretching along the Huangpu River between the narrow Wusong River and Old Town, was the former Wall Street of the foreign powers. Today the area bristles with activity and excitement virtually any time of the day or night. Crowds gather every morning to perform the slow, graceful exercises known as taichi. Street performers, photographers, peddlers, and young Chinese couples all congregate along this fashionable section of Zhongshan Road. Overlooking it all are the massive European-style buildings that held banks, trading houses, hotels, and trendy night spots in the early part of the century. At the northwest end of the Bund is Huangpu Park, fomerly the British Public Gardens" (excerpt from a tourism brochure).

2.  World's top five tourism earners, receipts (billions of U.S. dollars), 2001:

  1. United States, 72.3
  2. Spain, 32.9
  3. France, 29.6
  4. Italy, 25.9
  5. China, 17.8

Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO).  Data as collected by the WTO June 2002.

3.  World's top seven tourism spenders, receipts (billions of U.S. dollars), 2000:

  1. United States, 64.5 

  2. Germany, 47.8 

  3. United Kingdom, 36.3 

  4. Japan, 31.9

  5. France, 17.7 

  6. Italy, 15.7 

  7. China, 13.1

Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO). Data as collected by the WTO June 2002.

4.  "With a population officially just under 1.3 billion and an estimated growth rate of about 1 percent, China is very concerned about its population growth and has attempted with mixed results to implement a strict family planning policy. The government's goal is one child per urban family, and two children per rural family, with guidelines looser for ethnic minorities with small populations. Enforcement varies widely, and relies upon 'social compensation fees' for extra children as a means of keeping families small. Official government policy opposes forced abortion or sterilization, but occasional allegations of coercion persist in localities that take their population growth targets most seriously. Recent international efforts, including those funded by the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA), are demonstrating to government officials that a voluntary, non-coercive approach to family planning can be effective in promoting sustainable population growth. The government's goal is to stabilize the population in the first half of the twenty-first century, and current projections are that the population will peak at around 1.6 billion by 2050"  (U.S. State Department Country Background Notes).

5.  The question of environmental impacts associated with the Three Gorges Dam project has generated controversy among environmentalists inside and outside China. Critics claim that erosion and silting of the Yangtze River threaten several endangered species, while Chinese officials say the dam will help prevent devastating floods and generate clean hydroelectric power that will enable the region to lower its dependence on coal, thus lessening air pollution.  (U.S. State Department Country Background Notes.) 


introduction       page 1          page 2 

     endnotes            biographical notes          bibliography